A Programming Language for a Portable Development System

Prototyping with Arduino and compatibles is fairly easy, especially when it comes to the hardware.  A breadboard simplifies things quite a bit.  A few months ago, I realized that I did not have any, so I purchased one, in a kit, on Amazon from a company called Elagoo. The kit, for about sixteen dollars (US) contained a lot of parts and the breadboard. Well, the board is fairly small, so I decided to create a portable workspace and mount the breadboard, an Arduino UNO R3 clone, a 2 x 16 LCD and some cord organizers.  It works great, and I can take my project around. Nice.  Problem, though, is that I still need to be tethered to the computer in order to write code.

WP_20161001_18_38_08_Pro_LI (2)This got me thinking…could I come up with a small but easy to use interface language that could be coded with nothing more than a 12 key keypad?

The answer is yes.  So, I have come up with an initial set of opcodes for programming with nothing more than what is on my workspace. 

This language would more resemble CHIP-8 than, say, the Arduino language.  Commands, statements and functions all use a single byte but can have one or more subsequent values for parameters.

The tables below outline the main features. The keypad I am using (because it was less than a buck) does not have enough keys for full hexadecimal, so I had to improvise. Still working on a scheme to allow alphanumeric entry without connecting a full ASCII keyboard.  For now, the language will be limited to reading sensors, accepting decimal (though integer only) numbers. No video, serial out to the 2×16 LCD or a Bluetooth module.

For the tables, the first column is the opcode, second is what the opcode does, third is any parameter( s ) necessary and the last is a description.

Assignment:

01

Let

Var (00-0F)

Value (00-FF)

Conditionals:

02

IF

Var (00-0F)

01 is equal, 02 is <, 03 is >, 04 is <>

03

Jump if true

Addr (00-FF)

 

Program Flow:

04

Goto

Addr (00-FF)

Transfer control to address

05

Call

Addr (00-FF)

Call a subroutine

06

Return

   

07

End

 

Ends program

Input/Output

10

Inkey

Var (00-0F)

Gets input from the keyboard

11

Out

Var (00-0F)

Outputs a value

12

Temp

Var (00-0F)

Gets a reading from the temperature sensor

13

Pinset

00-FF

Send a value to pin

14

Pinread

00-FF

Get a value from pin

15

Xfer Pin

Var (00-0F)

Transfers value from read pin to variable

I would envision the interpreter being fairly small, so it may be possible to integrate several libraries for the more popular sensors, like DHT-11 temp sensor and others.

So, what do you think?  Is this something of interest? Please post your thoughts in the comments below.

Download Half-Byte Tiny Basic 3

When I published the Tiny Basic 3 announcement, I included a link to download the installation package.  Well, that link was to the programming in Tiny Basic book.  Here is the correct link to download the source to upload to your Arduino or compatible:

https://1drv.ms/u/s!AnSbTyHNR1Q_vvlyQ9Om0fdanKbUHg

The link has been updated in the article as well.

Type in Game: PONG! (or, something close)

WP_20160911_21_48_56_Pro (3)Today’s type in game for HB Tiny Basic is a PONG! variant.  I cannot take full credit for this one, I found the original on a Japanese educational site devoted to teaching microcontroller programming, using Half-Byte’s Tiny Basic(!) (a variation of it, anyway) and for basic electronics.  The original was written in a variant of HB Tiny Basic and also used a 10k potentiometer for the controller.  I fixed a couple of bugs, got it to work with Nunchuk AND squeezed into a somewhat smaller memory footprint.

The game has a little bit of intelligence, it does a decent job of trying to guess where the ball will go, but, it is not perfect and it is possible to win the game.  There are some nice uses of the language, such as trying to include something like an OR statement when figuring out where the ball is going and takes advantage of an undocumented ‘feature’ of LINE: if you specify ‘2’ as the ‘color’ parameter, it simply inverses the pixels in the line.  This eliminates the need for multiple statements to draw and erase the paddles.  Quite clever.

Gameplay is super simple: the computer ALWAYS serves, the score goes to nine and stops. You are always on the right. You use the thumb stick up and down to control your paddle.

Weird things are likely to happen, it is not perfect and there’s no more room for improvement (challenge?)

Anyway, have fun!

10 CLS:A=0:B=0:W=48:H=32
30 BOX 0,0,W,H,1
40 U=H/2-3:V=U
50 LINE W-5,U,W-5,U+5,2:LINE 4,V,4,V+5,2
60 CURSOR 8,1:? A:IF A=9 STOP
70 CURSOR 3,1:? B:IF B=9 STOP
80 D=1:E=1:IF (U+V)&1 E=-1
90 X=5:Y=V+3:SET X,Y
100 C=50
110 IF C>0 C=C-1:GOTO 240
120 RESET X,Y
130 X=X+D
140 IF X=0 A=A+1:GOTO 60
150 IF X=W B=B+1:GOTO 60
160 IF X=W-6 IF Y>=U IF Y<=U+6 D=-D:TONE 440,100
170 IF X=5 IF Y>=V IF Y<=V+6 D=-D:TONE 440,100
180 Y=Y+E
190 IF Y=1 E=-E
200 IF Y=H-1 E=-E
210 IF X=W-6 IF Y=U IF E=1 E=-1
220 IF X=W-6 IF Y=U+5 IF E=-1 E=1
230 SET X,Y
240 LINE W-5,U,W-5,U+5,2
250 U=H-2-PAD(1)/8
260 IF U<0 U=0
270 IF U>H-6 U=H-6
280 LINE W-5,U,W-5,U+5,2:LINE 4,V,4,V+5,2
300 IF D=1 GOTO 370
310 IF X>=28 GOTO 370
320 IF X=27 IF A<=B GOTO 370
330 IF E=1 Q=Y+X-4:IF Q>=H Q=32-H
340 IF E=0 Q=Y-X+4:IF Q<0 Q=-Q
350 IF Q<V+3 IF V>1 V=V-1
360 IF Q>V+3 IF V<25 V=V+1
370 LINE 4,V,4,V+5,2
380 RESET X,Y
400 DELAY 20:GOTO 110

HB Tiny Basic Type in Game: Hurkle

For those of you who are old enough to know and remember the TRS-80, Cromemco or Altair will remember the game of Hurkle.

WP_20160908_23_16_10_Pro (2)A Hurkle is a legendary beast that, even today, remains highly elusive creature.  So elusive, in fact, that few have seen a Hurkle and lived to tell about it.  Of course, you, our intrepid adventurer, are different.  For, you, you have HALF-BYTE’S Tiny Basic and an Arduino or compatible microcontroller at your disposal.  An arsenal worthy of such of hunt.

Our Hurkle adventure takes place on a 10 by 10 grid.  You have to find the creature by deducing its where abouts on the 10 by 10 grid. Unfortunately for you, you will have from five to twenty moves in which to find the creature. Each time your adventure begins, your time is recalculated. This makes the level of difficulty even higher. You will, of course, through the use of the microcontroller, be told which direction you must travel.  Your grid follows a North-South, East-West pattern.  The X axis is West to East and Y axis is North to South. 

This simple game is rather difficult to play.  Sure, there is a way to cheat, but I’ll let you figure that out. And, once you do, you should just type NEW and move on to something else.

This game was originally published by the People’s Computer Company in Menlo Park California. I have adapted it from the Big Book of Computer Games, published in the early 1970’s.

NOTE: I had originally posted a version of the game, as part of a sample code page. The listing was broken and the game did not work correctly, as published.  This one does.  Apologies for that.

Below is the HB Tiny Basic listing.

10  CLS: ?”HURKLE”
20  ?”FOR HB TINY BASIC”
99  # Converted to TINY BASIC by George Gray
100 # HURKLE – PEOPLE’S COMPUTER COMPANY, MENLO PARK CA
110 N=RND(10)+5
120 G=10
210 ?
220 ? “A hurkle is hiding on a “,G,” by “,G,” grid.”
230 A = RND(G)
240 B = RND(G)
310 FOR K=1 TO N
320 ? “Guess #”,K
330 ?”X=”;: INPUT X
335 ?”Y=”;: INPUT Y
340 IF ABS(X-A)+ABS(Y-B)=0 GOTO 500
350 # ? INFO
360 GOSUB 610
380 NEXT K
420 ? “Sorry, that’s “,N,” guesses.”
430 ? “The hurkle is at “,A,”,”,B
450 ? “Let’s play again. Hurkle is hiding.”
470 GOTO 285
500 ? “You found him in “,K,” guesses!”
530 FOR I=1 TO 10
532 TONE 1000,75
534 NEXT I
540 GOTO 440
610 ? “Go “;
620 IF Y=B GOTO 670
630 IF Y<B GOTO 660
640 ? “South “
650 GOTO 670
660 ? “North “
670 IF X=A GOTO 720
680 IF X<A GOTO 710
690 ? “West “
700 GOTO 720
710 ? “East “
720 ?””
730 RETURN

Mario and iPhone 7…Pokemon and Apple Watch

Apple had its September press event to announce Apple Watch, Series 2, iOS 10 and iPhone 7.  But, perhaps the biggest thing announced at the event was a game.

Early on in the event, Tim Cook said that there were over 500,000 games in the app store, but that one had been missing. Rather, one character had been missing…MARIO. And, with that, he introduced Shigeru Miyamoto, the creator of Mario.

Mr. Miyamoto explained the new game while a demo was being played on the big screen.  This Mario game looks and sounds like a Wii U game, but is controlled via touch on the iPhone or iPad.  You use a single finger to control Mario’s jumps…the longer you hold your finger down, the higher he jumps. 

While the game looked great, the game play is like a neutered Super Mario Brothers 2D side scroller. Neutered in that it appeared that Mario only goes in one direction in single hand play.  The goal is to collect as many coins as you can and raise the end of level flag, before the time runs out. 

More importantly, the game will NOT be a ‘freemium’ game in the traditional sense. You only pay one time, there are no in game purchases.  There’s no having to wait two hours for your lives to replenish.  It is a nice change from the current game mobile game model.

Now, for the other announcements, and I’m not going into detail as it has already been covered else where.

Apple Watch 2 will be out in September and will be faster and more responsive.  Oh, and Pokemon GO! is coming to the Apple Watch.  With some health monitoring additions, this looks pretty decent.

iPhone 7, though, is what I am more excited to talk about. 

Now, before I go on, let me say that I am still not an Apple fan and I LOVE my Windows Mobile 10 phone(s). 

So, what has me excited about the iPhone 7?  Well, even though it isn’t a huge, earth shattering advance in mobile technology, the camera, faster processor and MICROSOFT have me excited for the new iPhone. 

The iPhone 7 will feature a new image sub system, new API’s and better optics. In addition, iPhone 7Plus, the phablet edition, will feature TWO 12 mp cameras in addition to the front camera.  The new image processor enables the phone to record in 4K video as well.

Here are some of the nice new photo related features, from Apple:

  • New Apple-designed Image Signal Processor, which processes over 100 billion operations on a single photo in as little as 25 milliseconds, resulting in incredible photos and videos;
  • New 7-megapixel FaceTime HD camera with wide color capture, advanced pixel technology and auto image stabilization for even better selfies; and
  • New Quad-LED True Tone flash that is 50 percent brighter than iPhone 6s including an innovative sensor that detects the flickering in lights and compensates for it in videos and photos.

Iapple-iphone7plus-zoomn addition to the photo features, Microsoft’s entire suite of apps that are on the iPhone mean that I can continue using my Microsoft services and apps with my Windows 10 desktop just as seamlessly as I can, now, with my Windows Mobile phone.

There are other things, like the subtle changes to iOS and to the phone chassis itself.

There are things I don’t like, such as the removal of the headphone jack, inability to upgrade storage via SD card, no way to project the phone to another screen (at least, I haven’t seen this) and the lack of home screen tiles…a feature I’ve really grown to love on my Windows Mobile phone.  In fact, the lack of live tiles is almost a deal breaker for me. Almost.

For now, I am on the verge of mothballing my Windows Mobile phone and going Apple again.  I’m going to have play with one for a bit.   But, today’s announcements look encouraging.  Of course, if I wait a year, I may like iPhone 8 more…

More type in goodness…Half-Byte Tiny Basic type in game, Zapp the Moon Man, take 2

zappthemoonmanRelease three of Half-Byte Tiny Basic ate up about eight more bytes of memory than the previous release, so there are now 938 bytes free for user code to reside.  My last version of Zapp the Moon Man—previously unpublished—featured the Moon man’s ability to move down the screen and attack as well as the user’s ability to move the cannon back and forth.  Sadly, for this release, I’ve had to remove the downward mobility of the Moon Man, but I have left in the user’s ability to move and also made the ‘hit box’ better, resulting in a somewhat easier game play.

This game shows off just how versatile Tiny Basic can be, how speedy the ATMega 328 is and how quickly Tiny Basic can interpret your code.

At any one time in the game, both your cannon and the Moon Man can be moving as well as the torpedo you are shooting at the moon man.  Three objects to track on the screen. In interpreted BASIC. Running on a microcontroller that was meant for turning relays on and off, not playing video games. And, it does it rather smoothly.  The jerkiness that is there is there by design, to mimmick those games from the 1970’s.

The game is pretty primitive. It resembles Space Invaders, but there is only one ‘invader’, the Moon Man, and there are no protective shields…heck, the Moon Man does not even shoot at you…yet.  It does feature some primitive, character based, animated graphics.  The Moon Man sort of looks like a Space Invader. As it moves back and forth, its antennae move and its ‘feet’ swivel side to side.  You use a Wii Nunchuck’s thumb stick to move and the Z button to fire your torpedo. The game keeps a score…10 points for every Moon Man you destroy.  You hear a launch tone when you fire and, when you hit a Moon Man, you see a little explosion like effect. And…that’s it.  Simple and not earth shattering (that will be in a future update.)

So, with out any further delay…(One note: when typing in the code, do not put in extra spaces.  Use one space between the line number and the code, and one space before line numbers in things like GOTO or GOSUB.  The listing below inserted additional spacing, you can ignore it.)

100 CLS:ECHO 0
110 A=0:B=0:O=75
120 X=10:Y=10:Z=5:F=0:D=1:S=0
140 LINE 0,48,80,48,1
150 GOSUB 700
160 GOSUB 900
170 P=PAD(3):Q=PAD(0)
180 IF P=1 F=1:TONE 200,100
190 IF F=1 GOSUB 1000
192 IF Q>200 GOSUB 600
194 IF Q<100 GOSUB 600
200 A=A+D
210 IF A>15 D=-1
220 IF A<3 D=1
230 GOSUB 1200
290 GOTO 140
600 CURSOR X,Y:?”  “;
610 IF Q>200 I=1
620 IF Q<200 I=-1
630 X=X+I
640 IF X<2 X=2
650 IF X>17 X=17
660 GOSUB 900
690 RETURN
700 IF D=1 CURSOR A,B:?CHR(152);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?CHR(153);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?”  “;
710 IF D=-1 CURSOR A,B:?CHR(153);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?CHR(152);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?”  “;
790 RETURN
900 CURSOR X,Y:?CHR(150);
990 RETURN
1000 CURSOR X,Z:?”|”;:DELAY 20:CURSOR X,Z:?” “;:DELAY 20
1050 Z=Z-1
1060 IF Z=0 IF A=X Z=5: GOTO 1100
1070 IF Z=0 IF A=X+1 Z=5: GOTO 1100
1080 IF Z=0 Z=5:F=0
1090 RETURN
1100 CURSOR A,B
1110 ?”***”;:DELAY 180:CURSOR A,B:?”XXX”;:DELAY 170:CURSOR A,B:?”   “;:A=0:B=0:F=0
1190 S=S+10
1200 CURSOR 0,5:?”SCORE:”,S;
1290 RETURN

 

If you come up with any improvements, optimization, etc., please let us know.

Oh, one big caveat…as it does use up all but 15 bytes of RAM, your keyboard buffer is limited to 15 bytes…Tiny Basic does not set aside a dedicate memory for keyboard input. It dwindles as you use up memory.  So, keep in mind that you may have to delete a long line and split it up—which will use at least three bytes plus the content of the line.

UPDATE:  Since this was posted, I have made a few improvements to the game AND saved even more RAM, about 90 bytes total.  Among the improvements: a random speed for the moon man, the ability of the moon man to descend on you and…you can lose the game.

The updated code is below.

100 CLS
110 A=0:B=0:O=RND(100)
120 X=10:Y=8:Z=5:F=0:D=1:S=0
140 LINE 0,48,80,48,1
150 GOSUB 700
160 GOSUB 900
170 P=PAD(3):Q=PAD(0)
180 IF P=1 F=1:TONE 200,100
190 IF F=1 GOSUB 1000
192 IF Q>200 I=1:GOSUB 600
194 IF Q<100 I=-1:GOSUB 600
200 A=A+D
210 IF A>16 D=-1:B=B+1:if b>=Y CLS:?”You lose!”:Delay 3000:goto 100
220 IF A<1 D=1
230 GOSUB 1200
290 GOTO 140
600 CURSOR X,Y:?”  “;:X=X+I
640 IF X<2 X=2
650 IF X>17 X=17
660 GOSUB 900
690 RETURN
700 CURSOR A,B:?CHR(152);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?CHR(153);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?”  “;
790 RETURN
900 CURSOR X,Y:?CHR(150);
990 RETURN
1000 CURSOR X,Z:?”|”;:DELAY 20:CURSOR X,Z:?” “;:DELAY 20
1010 Z=Z-1
1060 IF X=A IF Z=B GOTO 1100
1070 IF X=A+1 IF Z=B GOTO 1100
1080 IF Z=0 Z=5:F=0
1090 RETURN
1100 CURSOR A,B
1110 ?”***”;:DELAY 180:CURSOR A,B:?”XXX”;:DELAY 170:CURSOR A,B:?”   “;:A=0:B=0:F=0
1120 Z=5
1190 S=S+10:O=RND(100)
1200 CURSOR 0,5:?”SCORE:”,S;
1290 RETURN

More type in goodness…Half-Byte Tiny Basic type in game, Zapp the Moon Man, take 2

zappthemoonmanRelease three of Half-Byte Tiny Basic ate up about eight more bytes of memory than the previous release, so there are now 938 bytes free for user code to reside.  My last version of Zapp the Moon Man—previously unpublished—featured the Moon man’s ability to move down the screen and attack as well as the user’s ability to move the cannon back and forth.  Sadly, for this release, I’ve had to remove the downward mobility of the Moon Man, but I have left in the user’s ability to move and also made the ‘hit box’ better, resulting in a somewhat easier game play.

This game shows off just how versatile Tiny Basic can be, how speedy the ATMega 328 is and how quickly Tiny Basic can interpret your code.

At any one time in the game, both your cannon and the Moon Man can be moving as well as the torpedo you are shooting at the moon man.  Three objects to track on the screen. In interpreted BASIC. Running on a microcontroller that was meant for turning relays on and off, not playing video games. And, it does it rather smoothly.  The jerkiness that is there is there by design, to mimmick those games from the 1970’s.

The game is pretty primitive. It resembles Space Invaders, but there is only one ‘invader’, the Moon Man, and there are no protective shields…heck, the Moon Man does not even shoot at you…yet.  It does feature some primitive, character based, animated graphics.  The Moon Man sort of looks like a Space Invader. As it moves back and forth, its antennae move and its ‘feet’ swivel side to side.  You use a Wii Nunchuck’s thumb stick to move and the Z button to fire your torpedo. The game keeps a score…10 points for every Moon Man you destroy.  You hear a launch tone when you fire and, when you hit a Moon Man, you see a little explosion like effect. And…that’s it.  Simple and not earth shattering (that will be in a future update.)

So, with out any further delay…(One note: when typing in the code, do not put in extra spaces.  Use one space between the line number and the code, and one space before line numbers in things like GOTO or GOSUB.  The listing below inserted additional spacing, you can ignore it.)

100 CLS:ECHO 0
110 A=0:B=0:O=75
120 X=10:Y=10:Z=5:F=0:D=1:S=0
140 LINE 0,48,80,48,1
150 GOSUB 700
160 GOSUB 900
170 P=PAD(3):Q=PAD(0)
180 IF P=1 F=1:TONE 200,100
190 IF F=1 GOSUB 1000
192 IF Q>200 GOSUB 600
194 IF Q<100 GOSUB 600
200 A=A+D
210 IF A>15 D=-1
220 IF A<3 D=1
230 GOSUB 1200
290 GOTO 140
600 CURSOR X,Y:?”  “;
610 IF Q>200 I=1
620 IF Q<200 I=-1
630 X=X+I
640 IF X<2 X=2
650 IF X>17 X=17
660 GOSUB 900
690 RETURN
700 IF D=1 CURSOR A,B:?CHR(152);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?CHR(153);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?”  “;
710 IF D=-1 CURSOR A,B:?CHR(153);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?CHR(152);:DELAY O:CURSOR A,B:?”  “;
790 RETURN
900 CURSOR X,Y:?CHR(150);
990 RETURN
1000 CURSOR X,Z:?”|”;:DELAY 20:CURSOR X,Z:?” “;:DELAY 20
1050 Z=Z-1
1060 IF Z=0 IF A=X Z=5: GOTO 1100
1070 IF Z=0 IF A=X+1 Z=5: GOTO 1100
1080 IF Z=0 Z=5:F=0
1090 RETURN
1100 CURSOR A,B
1110 ?”***”;:DELAY 180:CURSOR A,B:?”XXX”;:DELAY 170:CURSOR A,B:?”   “;:A=0:B=0:F=0
1190 S=S+10
1200 CURSOR 0,5:?”SCORE:”,S;
1290 RETURN

 

If you come up with any improvements, optimization, etc., please let us know.

Oh, one big caveat…as it does use up all but 15 bytes of RAM, your keyboard buffer is limited to 15 bytes…Tiny Basic does not set aside a dedicate memory for keyboard input. It dwindles as you use up memory.  So, keep in mind that you may have to delete a long line and split it up—which will use at least three bytes plus the content of the line.