Verizon takes an OATH: the death of AOL and YAHOO!

Two of the Internet’s oldest and most well known names, Yahoo! and AOL, will soon cease to exist.  With their purchases by Verizon, both companies will be merged into something called OATH.  While it remains to be seen just how well the combined company will do, one is for certain, neither company is anything like the companies we knew and loved or loathed, back in their heyday.


Yahoo! was THE search site. Period.  It was the Google of the late nineties and very early double-aughts. If you needed to find something, you went to Yahoo!.  I used Excite, a lot, but, like today and Bing, I found myself always using Yahoo!  Then, at some point, it became Yahoo! Powered by Google.  What? What’s this ‘google’?  I know it is a very big number that Carl Sagan used to talk about…but, what’s this ‘powered by google’?  So, I used Yahoo! to search for google.  The aforementioned number was the top choice, then… I click the link and…viola! This empty page, except for the search bar and ‘google’ popped up.  Well, it looks like Yahoo! has company.  I eventually gravitated to Google for my searches.  Excite went belly up, as did most of the other search engines.  But, Yahoo! and Google were there.  Oh, this ‘MSN Search’ thing too…it eventually became useful and its name changed to Bing!, but that was years later.

Yahoo! lingered on…buying up hot properties in a desperate attempt to remain relevant, but…to no avail.  It became relegated to a collection of has-been properties, a few of which are still regarded in some fashion.

Only a few short years ago, Yahoo! was worth tens of billions of dollars.  Microsoft offered something like thirty billion to buy them, but then-CEO Jerry Yang figured that he could get ‘a better deal’ and held out.  He didn’t. He lost his title.  Marissa Mayer was brought in to right the ship…she couldn’t either.  Verizon got it for a tenth of what Microsoft had offered, not even a decade ago. I won’t even talk about the lack of security. Yikes.

America Online.

What can I say? I loved AOL.  I joined in 1992.  It was my favorite past time, well, other than a certain type of human interaction, that is.

Wow, just think, I could click a button, this loud, screaching sound came out of somewhere and, in a minute, I was ONLINE!  I had all kinds of things to do…look stuff up, download pictures, software, source code, short video clips…man, that was cool.  Sure, it took a LONG time to download files that, today, are smaller than most images on a web page, but, this was the early 1990’s and the Internet was new and not widely available. Bulletin boards were the hot things and these ‘chat rooms’ on AOL…yeah, those were cool. Perhaps the ability to share my knowledge with anyone was my favorite thing to do ‘online’.  I had written several demos and applications in this Visual Basic for DOS thing that was, for a few days, HOT.  Yep, HOT.  At least in the VB ‘room’ on AOL.  My demos and app were downloaded were downloaded…what, a dozen times.  Wow.  There was one demo, a phone dialer, that was downloaded about fifty times…I thought I was IT. Yep, fifty times. How freaking cool?

Well, as time went on, this Internet thing got big. REALLY BIG. And so did AOL.  AOL WAS THE INTERNET. For many, many people.  Think about that.

By 1998 or 1999, AOL was bigger than most tech companies. So big, in fact, that it bought Time-Warner Communications in 2000.  What a colossal mistake.  What AOL never counted on was the quick adoption of  high speed internet.  And the internal resistance within the Time Warner part of the company was overwhelming.  “these snot nosed punks aren’t coming in here to tell me what to do.”

By 2005, AOL was dead.  At least, to most they were. The company was still doing OK. It eventually spun off from Time Warner.  It became a collection of popular blogs and, believe it or not, they still had a sizable dial up customer base.  However, it wasn’t enough.

Verizon bought them.

And, now, they will be called Oath.

Admittedly, there’s a certain nostalgia surrounding both companies. That sound from-whatever-when you logged into AOL.  The anticipatory ‘You’ve got mail’. The excitement when the AOL home screen popped up (and, boy, that original DOS AOL client was both beautiful and cool) and, later on, the AOL Browser.  Yahoo! on AOL.

You know, now that I think of it, I kind of miss that sound from whatever and that anticipatory ‘You’ve got mail.’  Only kind of, though.


Type in Game: PONG! (or, something close)

WP_20160911_21_48_56_Pro (3)Today’s type in game for HB Tiny Basic is a PONG! variant.  I cannot take full credit for this one, I found the original on a Japanese educational site devoted to teaching microcontroller programming, using Half-Byte’s Tiny Basic(!) (a variation of it, anyway) and for basic electronics.  The original was written in a variant of HB Tiny Basic and also used a 10k potentiometer for the controller.  I fixed a couple of bugs, got it to work with Nunchuk AND squeezed into a somewhat smaller memory footprint.

The game has a little bit of intelligence, it does a decent job of trying to guess where the ball will go, but, it is not perfect and it is possible to win the game.  There are some nice uses of the language, such as trying to include something like an OR statement when figuring out where the ball is going and takes advantage of an undocumented ‘feature’ of LINE: if you specify ‘2’ as the ‘color’ parameter, it simply inverses the pixels in the line.  This eliminates the need for multiple statements to draw and erase the paddles.  Quite clever.

Gameplay is super simple: the computer ALWAYS serves, the score goes to nine and stops. You are always on the right. You use the thumb stick up and down to control your paddle.

Weird things are likely to happen, it is not perfect and there’s no more room for improvement (challenge?)

Anyway, have fun!

10 CLS:A=0:B=0:W=48:H=32
30 BOX 0,0,W,H,1
40 U=H/2-3:V=U
50 LINE W-5,U,W-5,U+5,2:LINE 4,V,4,V+5,2
60 CURSOR 8,1:? A:IF A=9 STOP
70 CURSOR 3,1:? B:IF B=9 STOP
80 D=1:E=1:IF (U+V)&1 E=-1
90 X=5:Y=V+3:SET X,Y
100 C=50
110 IF C>0 C=C-1:GOTO 240
130 X=X+D
140 IF X=0 A=A+1:GOTO 60
150 IF X=W B=B+1:GOTO 60
160 IF X=W-6 IF Y>=U IF Y<=U+6 D=-D:TONE 440,100
170 IF X=5 IF Y>=V IF Y<=V+6 D=-D:TONE 440,100
180 Y=Y+E
190 IF Y=1 E=-E
200 IF Y=H-1 E=-E
210 IF X=W-6 IF Y=U IF E=1 E=-1
220 IF X=W-6 IF Y=U+5 IF E=-1 E=1
230 SET X,Y
240 LINE W-5,U,W-5,U+5,2
250 U=H-2-PAD(1)/8
260 IF U<0 U=0
270 IF U>H-6 U=H-6
280 LINE W-5,U,W-5,U+5,2:LINE 4,V,4,V+5,2
300 IF D=1 GOTO 370
310 IF X>=28 GOTO 370
320 IF X=27 IF A<=B GOTO 370
330 IF E=1 Q=Y+X-4:IF Q>=H Q=32-H
340 IF E=0 Q=Y-X+4:IF Q<0 Q=-Q
350 IF Q<V+3 IF V>1 V=V-1
360 IF Q>V+3 IF V<25 V=V+1
370 LINE 4,V,4,V+5,2
400 DELAY 20:GOTO 110

HB Tiny Basic Type in Game: Hurkle

For those of you who are old enough to know and remember the TRS-80, Cromemco or Altair will remember the game of Hurkle.

WP_20160908_23_16_10_Pro (2)A Hurkle is a legendary beast that, even today, remains highly elusive creature.  So elusive, in fact, that few have seen a Hurkle and lived to tell about it.  Of course, you, our intrepid adventurer, are different.  For, you, you have HALF-BYTE’S Tiny Basic and an Arduino or compatible microcontroller at your disposal.  An arsenal worthy of such of hunt.

Our Hurkle adventure takes place on a 10 by 10 grid.  You have to find the creature by deducing its where abouts on the 10 by 10 grid. Unfortunately for you, you will have from five to twenty moves in which to find the creature. Each time your adventure begins, your time is recalculated. This makes the level of difficulty even higher. You will, of course, through the use of the microcontroller, be told which direction you must travel.  Your grid follows a North-South, East-West pattern.  The X axis is West to East and Y axis is North to South. 

This simple game is rather difficult to play.  Sure, there is a way to cheat, but I’ll let you figure that out. And, once you do, you should just type NEW and move on to something else.

This game was originally published by the People’s Computer Company in Menlo Park California. I have adapted it from the Big Book of Computer Games, published in the early 1970’s.

NOTE: I had originally posted a version of the game, as part of a sample code page. The listing was broken and the game did not work correctly, as published.  This one does.  Apologies for that.

Below is the HB Tiny Basic listing.

10  CLS: ?”HURKLE”
99  # Converted to TINY BASIC by George Gray
110 N=RND(10)+5
120 G=10
210 ?
220 ? “A hurkle is hiding on a “,G,” by “,G,” grid.”
230 A = RND(G)
240 B = RND(G)
310 FOR K=1 TO N
320 ? “Guess #”,K
330 ?”X=”;: INPUT X
335 ?”Y=”;: INPUT Y
340 IF ABS(X-A)+ABS(Y-B)=0 GOTO 500
350 # ? INFO
360 GOSUB 610
380 NEXT K
420 ? “Sorry, that’s “,N,” guesses.”
430 ? “The hurkle is at “,A,”,”,B
450 ? “Let’s play again. Hurkle is hiding.”
470 GOTO 285
500 ? “You found him in “,K,” guesses!”
530 FOR I=1 TO 10
532 TONE 1000,75
534 NEXT I
540 GOTO 440
610 ? “Go “;
620 IF Y=B GOTO 670
630 IF Y<B GOTO 660
640 ? “South “
650 GOTO 670
660 ? “North “
670 IF X=A GOTO 720
680 IF X<A GOTO 710
690 ? “West “
700 GOTO 720
710 ? “East “
720 ?””

More type in goodness…Half-Byte Tiny Basic type in game, Zapp the Moon Man, take 2

zappthemoonmanRelease three of Half-Byte Tiny Basic ate up about eight more bytes of memory than the previous release, so there are now 938 bytes free for user code to reside.  My last version of Zapp the Moon Man—previously unpublished—featured the Moon man’s ability to move down the screen and attack as well as the user’s ability to move the cannon back and forth.  Sadly, for this release, I’ve had to remove the downward mobility of the Moon Man, but I have left in the user’s ability to move and also made the ‘hit box’ better, resulting in a somewhat easier game play.

This game shows off just how versatile Tiny Basic can be, how speedy the ATMega 328 is and how quickly Tiny Basic can interpret your code.

At any one time in the game, both your cannon and the Moon Man can be moving as well as the torpedo you are shooting at the moon man.  Three objects to track on the screen. In interpreted BASIC. Running on a microcontroller that was meant for turning relays on and off, not playing video games. And, it does it rather smoothly.  The jerkiness that is there is there by design, to mimmick those games from the 1970’s.

The game is pretty primitive. It resembles Space Invaders, but there is only one ‘invader’, the Moon Man, and there are no protective shields…heck, the Moon Man does not even shoot at you…yet.  It does feature some primitive, character based, animated graphics.  The Moon Man sort of looks like a Space Invader. As it moves back and forth, its antennae move and its ‘feet’ swivel side to side.  You use a Wii Nunchuck’s thumb stick to move and the Z button to fire your torpedo. The game keeps a score…10 points for every Moon Man you destroy.  You hear a launch tone when you fire and, when you hit a Moon Man, you see a little explosion like effect. And…that’s it.  Simple and not earth shattering (that will be in a future update.)

So, with out any further delay…(One note: when typing in the code, do not put in extra spaces.  Use one space between the line number and the code, and one space before line numbers in things like GOTO or GOSUB.  The listing below inserted additional spacing, you can ignore it.)

100 CLS:ECHO 0
110 A=0:B=0:O=75
120 X=10:Y=10:Z=5:F=0:D=1:S=0
140 LINE 0,48,80,48,1
150 GOSUB 700
160 GOSUB 900
170 P=PAD(3):Q=PAD(0)
180 IF P=1 F=1:TONE 200,100
190 IF F=1 GOSUB 1000
192 IF Q>200 GOSUB 600
194 IF Q<100 GOSUB 600
200 A=A+D
210 IF A>15 D=-1
220 IF A<3 D=1
230 GOSUB 1200
290 GOTO 140
600 CURSOR X,Y:?”  “;
610 IF Q>200 I=1
620 IF Q<200 I=-1
630 X=X+I
640 IF X<2 X=2
650 IF X>17 X=17
660 GOSUB 900
900 CURSOR X,Y:?CHR(150);
1000 CURSOR X,Z:?”|”;:DELAY 20:CURSOR X,Z:?” “;:DELAY 20
1050 Z=Z-1
1060 IF Z=0 IF A=X Z=5: GOTO 1100
1070 IF Z=0 IF A=X+1 Z=5: GOTO 1100
1080 IF Z=0 Z=5:F=0
1110 ?”***”;:DELAY 180:CURSOR A,B:?”XXX”;:DELAY 170:CURSOR A,B:?”   “;:A=0:B=0:F=0
1190 S=S+10
1200 CURSOR 0,5:?”SCORE:”,S;


If you come up with any improvements, optimization, etc., please let us know.

Oh, one big caveat…as it does use up all but 15 bytes of RAM, your keyboard buffer is limited to 15 bytes…Tiny Basic does not set aside a dedicate memory for keyboard input. It dwindles as you use up memory.  So, keep in mind that you may have to delete a long line and split it up—which will use at least three bytes plus the content of the line.

Casio Calculator Watches…the original smartwatch

Back in the mid 1980’s, miniaturization and micro electronics were coming into the mass market at prices people could afford.  Pocket television, pocketable computers, small calculators and digital watches were common place.  Digital Watches, which began as consumer products in the late seventies, were in full swing with watches that mimmicked analog watches, watches that played a game, ‘databank’ watches and calculator watches. 

CasioWatchOh man, the calculator watch.  Casio. 

I had to have one.

When they first came out, they were expensive.  But, seemingly, overnight, the price plunged and I could afford one.  I bought myself a Casio. I don’t remember the model number, but I recall it was sleek, black with white trim and it could store 16 memos or something like that. It was very cool.

I had that watch for years. In fact, I had it up until my last move, some five years ago. The case broke right where strap is held in place by the pin.  I think I replaced the battery once in the twenty some years I had it. WP_20160804_21_35_542_Pro

The calculator watch, like most digital watches, faded away.  Forgotten.  Or, so it seemed.

I don’t know if the current ‘smartwatch’ fad has anything to do with it, but I saw them on sale at my local CVS drug store.  For five dollars.  I had to buy it.

Now, this thing is cheap, it looks cheap and feels cheap.  But…it’s a bloody CAL-CU-LATOR WATCH!  How freaking cool is that?!  Is it just me?

Anyway, I don’t care how long it lasts, I like it and it took me down memory lane.   Best five dollars spent in a long time.

Start! Me up! Windows 95 hits 20

IWindows-95n early 1995, I saw on America Online that, for $15, you could join the ‘open public beta’ program that Microsoft was starting for something called ‘Chicago’, aka the next version of Windows.  Boy, was I excited.  I eagerly handed them the money and awaited my DISKS. Yes, disks.  For another five bucks, I could get a CD ROM.  I think I did that too, I am pretty sure I did.  After two agonizing weeks, I got my disks.

I carefully backed up my Windows for Workgroups installation and files.  To TAPE.  Oh boy.  Then, following the instructions, I installed Windows 95 on my homebrew computer.  I had upgraded my memory to a full gigabyte of RAM AND had a spiffy new 500 megabyte (I think it was 500, might have been 420, not sure) hard disk and a new-ish Local Bus video card. I was ready.

The installation took several hours, but went smoothly.  That last reboot was very exciting. This Chicago thing already looked cool.  I think I had every computer magazine printed at the time, in front of me, opened to the lead articles about this Chicago thing. Since the public beta had been out for weeks or even months, the magazines had screenshots of what it looked like. It was sleek, three d like, cool iconography, and this thing called ‘START’. What the hell was that? Oh, and this other thing called ‘The Microsoft Network.’

The computer rebooted and Chicago – er, Windows 95, booted for the first time on my computer. WOW.  What was this magic?  Oh my.  It had a green desktop.  Battleship gray controls and…the START Button. I click it. Wow, my programs were listed there and some other things called shortcuts.  WFW 3.11, you are so yesterday! 

After getting to know the user interface, I immediately tried the one feature that I was dying to have:  LONG FILENAMES. Yes, the only thing that really drew me to the this new operating system were the long filenames.  I wanted ‘georges resume for 1995.doc’ instead of gresu95.doc.  I mean, really, gresu95.doc? Long filenames, to me, were the biggest improvement to Windows.  Oh, sure, there was all that stuff about new API’s, something called DirectX coming out soon, a new audio system, a new rendering engine, networking that was ‘easy’, and other cool things, but all I cared about were the long filenames.  And, they worked well.

Suddenly, it dawned on me that my Windows 3.11 applications looked like natvie Windows 95 apps and I got all giddy.  COOL! I don’t need to buy new stuff.  Well, yeah, I sort of did have to buy new stuff. Some could wait, but others could not.  None of the Windows 3.x software was long file name aware, so, I really had the same situation as before, only it looked way better now.  No problem, I bought a program that faked it for those applications and it worked well, until the database got corrupted.

My twenty bucks also got me into the Microsoft Network, aka MSN.  MSN was an America Online wannabe.  It wasn’t really. It was cool, until the beta ended and I had to pay for it. Once I got a bill, I dropped it. Wasn’t worth it and, after all, I had AOL AND Bell Atlantic dial up, so why would I need MSN?  Problem was, most people did not need or want MSN and it did not last long.

As the release date drew closer, there was a frenzy around the OS building.  The Rolling Stones’ ‘Start Me Up’ song became the Windows 95 theme, commercials abound and, OS2 Warp trying to make a big splash before Windows 95 hit shelves.  IBM’s last stand.  It failed.  OS/2 was relegated to the dust bin.  But, Windows 95? It was everywhere. Seeing that big START button on a billboard? That was cool. Hearing people talk about this Windows 95 thing was tremendous.

During this time, I entered a contest, by Microsoft, whereby I had to write about how Windows 95 changed my life.  I wrote it, took pictures of my computer running it and submitted it.  Weeks later, just prior to the launch, I was notified that I had placed in a tie with an undisclosed number of people. My prize was a legal, boxed copy of Windows 95 AND something called Windows 95 PLUS! pack.  I got both of them on launch day.

August 24, 1995.  Lines wrapping around buildings. Entire newspapers devoted to the operating system.  Product placement everywhere.  Microsoft held an event to officially kick off the OS.  On stage, Jay Leno emceed the event. He read off quotes from the testimonials-actually from the contestant entries-and I was quoted by him.  Supposedly, the essays were framed and lined halls at the Microsoft campus in Redmond. I don’t know if that is true or not, but I want to think it was. Yeah, we’ll go with that.

Anyway, the hype was so great, people who did not even have a Windows computer were buying Windows 95.  That’s all you heard on the news, was this new computer program was out and would make life so much easier. While, it did make computers easier to use, I don’t know that it was killer app for life.

My favorite product placement was the Windows 95 box on Seinfeld’s desk, next to his Macintosh—which could not run PC software at that time.

Windows 95 was a huge advancement for home computers. As much as the iPhone was important for smartphones, Windows 95 introduced computing people who would not otherwise have bothered.  It took computers mainstream.  It jumpstarted careers, indeed, created an entire industry. While that industry today is changing, in 1995, it was just starting and ‘Start me up’ is, indeed, what it did. 

Looking back, I was not as excited on launch day as others were. Oh, sure, I enjoyed the day, as any geek might, but the excitement of putting the disks in the computer, following prompts, installing the OS was gone because I already experienced it, months prior to that day.  There were a few things on the shipping CD that I had not seen, mainly the two music videos-The New Bohemians and the ‘Happy Days’ video. I think there were a few games and some demos. But the core OS was the same.  No matter, I was now eager for the NEXT version, Windows 96. Only, that would be nearly three years later and called Windows 98.  But, it didn’t come close to the excitement that was Windows 95.

Yep, the Start button, fancy new themes, something called ‘Internet Explorer’ (which was on the Plus! pack) and the Long FileNames. Those were killer.  Oh, sure, having Leno quote ME, a shmoe from Richmond, Virginia, well, that was OK too.

Multi-Player Tiny Trek for Arduino

TinyTrekBasicListingWhen I set about creating the Half-Byte Computer/Console, one of the things I, personally, wanted to do with it was create a small, easy to program, micro-micro computer that harkened back to my childhood, otherwise known as the 1970’s.  In order to do so, I needed the language that I learned back then, Tiny Basic, to work on the device.  I did both and it works great.  However, one of my goals with this combo was to play Tiny Trek.

Now, Tiny Trek is small, compared to its big brothers that ran on computers with gobs of memory (you know, 8k) and something called ‘Microsoft Basic’ or ‘Microsoft Basic-80’.  These behemoth Treks’’ would clock in at around 4k to 7k or more. Tiny Trek, however, was small, about 1.5k.


Wow, that’s BIG!  At least, it is when you have less than 1024 bytes (1k) of RAM to work with. 

I am still looking for a solution to the RAM squeeze.

Anyway,  My goal of running Tiny Trek in Tiny Basic is yet to be resolved. HOWEVER…I have decided to code it in Arduino C.  This way, the code can be what ever size it needs and I can have more memory for graphics.  I am also considering making it multiplayer, instead of the computer being the Klingons, one player can be Klingon and one can be the Federation.

Only problem is time, which is in very short supply right now and I’ve got several other things ahead of this, but, I can still plan it out, right?

So…here’s my thoughts on multiplayer Tiny Trek for Arduino.  You won’t need a Half-Byte computer, but if you do….let me know!

Input and Output

11268362_10204228141446944_697530416473282760_oSince this is supposed to be a simulator, I’m thinking we don’t need a full keyboard, so a keypad will work just fine.  I have a few sticky back keypads that I can use. They have 0-9 and a-d and few other keys.  They should work just fine.  I was also thinking of using the Wii Nunchuk, but I am thinking that is overkill and limited in use.  But, I may have dedicated buttons for phaser/photon torpedo and shields up/down.

I’m going to use video and audio, but I am also thinking that a small status display is in order. I have a few 2×16 lcd panels, but they use the serial I/O, which will be used for communication between the two computers, so I may use the little Nokia 5110 LCD’s.  They are similar in resolution to the video, so I could swap screens if needed.  I’m thinking the little screen could show energy, torpedo inventory, shield status and other info.  Video would show the short range/long range display.


For now, serial will be used to communicate with the two computers.  As each computer will be running independently, I’m thinking code in each version of the game will have to have a main loop that will then monitor communication from the other computer and alert the user accordingly. It also needs to ‘run’ the ships functions and service the UI.  Our snappy 328’s are perfect for this. Oh, it also has to monitor the keypad and update the secondary screen. No problem.


The game, as stated above, will start and run in a loop.  This loop will simply call various functions that will then control the game.  This main loop will:

  • monitor serial i/o
  • update the video
  • monitor the keypad
  • update the secondary screen
  • run each game module
  • do it all over and over until game won or ship is destroyed

The game modules contain the library computer, short and long range scanners, battle mode, navigation, ships condition.

Game Play

Game play will be very similar to the 1970’s version in which you have to seek out and destroy the dreaded Klingons. Instead, however, of having to destroy x number, you have to only get one…but that can be hard as that one is another player who will play unpredictably AND it will be much more difficult to destroy the ships.  There will be only one starbase for the Federation and one for the Klingon.  You must protect your base as it CAN be attacked.  You cannot, however, use phasers or torpedos while ‘docked’.  The Klingon CAN, however, attack while you are docked. Undocking will use one move and you will be vulnerable while doing so.  Klingon bases can cloak for a short time.

Victory is achieved when you destroy your opponent.  You do so by: forcing them to use up all shields and power.  When both are depleted, they will be given the opportunity to surrender. If they do not, you must destroy them. If you do not, they can escape and the game will end in a draw.


In addition to the keypads and secondary screens, I’m thinking the PIN 13 LED can be used for the RED ALERT.  It blinks when your opponent is in range.  Some cool things that can be done…the previously mentioned buttons for phaser/photon torpedo control and shield control, there could also be a self destruct (have not thought much about it, though.)  You could get as complicated as you want, provided you have enough pins.

Serial is the best way to talk to the computers, but that does not mean they have to be wired.  There are cheap bluetooth modules that communicate serially and then there is the super cool and super cheap ESP8266 WiFi boards.  And, the best part is that you only need a few lines of code to set them up, no additional libraries are needed.

So, there you go, a multiplayer, interactive Tiny Trek for Arduino.  What do you think? Leave your ideas, suggestions, whatever in the comments below.

Hoping it wont be too long before I can start this. Of course, I need someone to play with…maybe an Internet option too….hmmm….